Causes and Disadvantages of Low Power Factor

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Causes of Low Power Factor

(i) Due to the generation of magnetic flux in the transformer, the magnetizing current flows due to which the load current lags behind the voltage. This magnetizing current does not affect the power factor much at the prescribed load, but this current reduces the power factor at a low load.
(ii) A.C. ordinarily The power factor of motors is low due to low load and is only about 0.2 at low load while it reaches about 0.85 at full load.
(iii) Due to various characteristics of arc lamps, induction heat furnaces, the power factor is low, which reduces the power factor of the line.
(iv) As the supply voltage increases due to less load, the magnetizing current increases in the inductive circuits, decreasing the line’s power factor.
(v) The value of the load at any power station is variable. Morning load is more, and evening load is less. When the load is less, then the value of the power factor is less.
(vi) In older motors, due to faulty rotor and stator, the air gap between them increases, due to which the power factor is reduced. Increasing the air gap increases the reluctance of the circuit, which increases the magnetizing current and decreases the power factor.

Disadvantages of Low Power Factor

1. The cost of generating and distributing system equipment increases due to the low power factor.
2. The low power factor hurts the voltage regulation and makes it difficult to maintain the potential rating.
3. Low power factor leads to increased line losses, requiring larger drivers to reduce them, leading to increased line expenditure. would have been less
4. Due to the low power factor, the equipment’s efficiency and the line are low.

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