What is Lubrication- Types, Properties, Method of Lubrication

Hello friends, today I am going to tell you What is lubrication, Types of lubrication, properties of lubricants, Objects of Lubricant, Methods of Lubrication:If you also want to know, then keep reading this article completely.

What is lubrication

Friction occurs when two surfaces move relative to each other in contact with each other. This friction provides a resistance force to the motion of the mating parts, due to which there is a loss of power. In various types of machines, tools, etc., used in engineering work, some components perform different types of motion by staying in contact with each other. Such as bearings, gears, pistons etc. Due to the movement of the components in contact with each other, there is a possibility of wear and tear in them due to friction and they need to be replaced. Therefore, to prevent the contact surfaces from wear and tear due to friction, a thin layer of lubricant is made between these surfaces, which is called lubrication.

Lubrication of machines is as important as the circulation of blood in the human body. When two mating surfaces are completely separated by a thin continuous film of lubricant, it is called film lubrication. When there is not enough lubricant between mating surfaces to separate them, this is called boundary lubrication. In this the mating surface seldom comes into contact.

Types of lubrication

There are three types of lubrication.

1. Liquid

2. Semi solid

3. Liquid

4. Gas

Solid lubricants:

Examples of lubricants are graphite, lead sulfide, mica, talc, wax, etc. Solid lubricants mixed with semi-solid lubricants are used in bearings.

Semi-solid lubricants:

Under this, those lubricants come which do not flow at normal room temperature. Most semisolid lubricants are made from mineral oils and fatty oils. Semi-solid lubricants are commonly known as greases.

Liquid lubricants:

It includes all types of mineral oils, animal and vegetable oils. Mineral oils are used for machine lubrication. Mineral oils are made by combining paraffin, naphthalene, aromatic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Lardoil and sperm oil are prominent in animal oil and olive oil, cotton seed oil and linsed oil etc. come in vegetable oil.

Gas lubricants:

In this, gases like air, hydrogen, nitrogen etc. are used.

properties of lubricants

The range of viscosity should be high.
The change in viscosity (viscosin) should decrease with temperature.
There should be no chemical interaction with the bearings of the lubricant.
Its chemical durability should be high.
The lubricant should be of physical stability, so that pressure etc. does not undergo multiplication.
Every lubricant should be free from acids and bases.
Lubricants should be cheap.
The lubricant should not undergo evaporation and emulsification.
The amount of carbon particles in the lubricant should be low.
It should be durable.
The relative heat of the lubricant should be high, so that the maximum part of the heat is dissipated with it and the parts remain cool.
Its point of flow and coefficient of friction should be low.
The ignition point should be high.
Lubrication should not be too expensive, otherwise the maintenance cost will increase greatly.
It should have good coordination with the ingredients.
There should be minimum consistency.
The liquid should not have the property of acidity.

Objects of Lubricant

Lubricants have the following purposes

Reducing the power loss in moving parts by reducing friction.
Reducing friction and wear of moving parts.
Cleaning the engine by removing metal and carbon particles due to abrasion and wear.
Cooling the various parts of the engine by absorbing the heat generated due to friction.
Prevent corrosion of working fluid by sealing the space between piston ring and cylinder walls. 6. To act as a cushion for engine components to withstand shock and vibration.
Protecting surfaces from corrosion.
Throwing out the heat generated by friction in the bearings.
Protecting bearings from corrosion etc.
Lubricants in rolling bearings reduce friction between the ball and the race.
Sealing of bearings protects them from dust and dirt. ,
The flow of lubricants does the same thing as the bearings, carrying the dirt with them.

Methods of Lubrication

Gravity system

(i) Can oiling

(ii) Wick lubrication

(iii) Sight feed lubrication

Mechanical system unforced

(i) Ring lubrication

(ii) Splash lubrication

(iii) Oil Bath lubrication


Forced feed system

(i) Bypump

(ii) Banjo lubrication


1.Gravity System

In this method, the oils are transported to different parts only by the force of gravity.

(i) Can Oiling – In this method oil is filled in a can. Oil is given at necessary places by hand only. This method is very popular for simple tasks.

(ii) Wick Lubricants- This method is quite popular for permanent engines.

(ii) Sight Feed Lubricants – This type of lubricator is also used quite a lot in practice, it is also called drop feed oiler.

2.Mechanical System Unforced

By this method, lubrication of various parts is done by moving parts of machines or engines etc.

(i) Ring Lubricants – By this method the lubrication of the bearings of horizontal rotating bodies is done very easily.

(ii) Splash Lubricants – This method is used only in stationary engines. For that it is necessary how the frank should be completely closed, so that the oil cannot leak out. Also, it is necessary that the oil level should be up to the required mark. It is used for small and high speed engines. This method is used for both vertical and horizontal engines.

(iii) Oil Bath Lubricants – In this method gears, chains etc. are lubricated. In this method the rotating parts are immersed in the oil bath. This allows oil to be delivered to the required parts.

3. Forced Feed System

By this method the lubrication of different parts is strengthened. In this, lubrication of piston etc. is done with a type of pump.

(i) Pump Lubricants – In this the amount of oil coming from the pit is controlled by screw. On the other hand a piston. which is driven by the engine itself.

(ii) Banjo Lubricants – The lubrication done by centrifugal force is called banjo system. In this method the lubricating oil is entered inside a rotating ring. This method is often used more in small engines.


Mechanical System

In this method, the lubrication of various components is done by the moving parts of the machine or engine.

(a) Ring lubrication – In this method, lubrication is done with the help of a ring. In this type of lubricant, one or more rings are attached to the shaft as shown in Figure 1. The diameter of these rings is greater than the diameter of the shaft.

As the shaft rotates, the ring also slowly spins with it, allowing some of the oil to secrete along the ring to reach the shaft and spread around the top of it. Thus lubricating the bearing surfaces, the oil continues to fall back into the oil reservoir, and the process continues. In this method, the lubricant stops when the shaft forms. Chains are also used in place of many bar rings. This method is usually suitable for lubricating shafts rotating at medium speeds.

(b) Splash-carrying – This method is used in low speed vertical engines. An oil sump is formed under the engine’s crack case. In which the lubricating oil is always kept up to a certain level, there is a strong dip stick to see the bottom of the oil. This rod is immersed in oil.

In some engines, oil may come out by this method, with a pipe bent in motion at the head called a scoop. The grooves in the bearing lid related to this scoop are cut, and the one related to this groove remains. When the large end of the connecting rod comes out immersed in oil, the oil splashes, which lubricate the cylinder wall. And the main bearing lubricates them by collecting in the trough made in the cam shaft bearings etc.

(c) Oil well lubrication – By this method gears, chains etc. are lubricated. In this method the rotating parts are immersed in the oil tank. When the parts are rotated, the oil reaches the required places. All the above methods are very easy, but the main demerit of them is that the amount of oil reaches very less.

what did you learn today:-

Friends, today you learned What is lubrication, Types of lubrication, properties of lubricants, Objects of Lubricant, Methods of Lubrication. If you liked the information given by me, then you can share it with your friends and if you have any question or suggestion in your mind, then you can tell by commenting below.

Leave a comment