HRC Fuse : Construction and Working & Its Advantages

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Construction of HRC Fuse

There are generally three types of HRC fuses-

  1. HRC Cartridge Fuse
  2. HRC Cartridge Fuse with Tipping
  3. GEC HRC Fuse

Construction and Working Process of HRC Fuse

1. HRC Cartridge Fuse- The structure of this type of fuse is shown in Figure 1 below. In this type of fuse-

(a) Cart
(b) Brass cap
(c) fuse element
(d) bi-metallic thermal contact
(e) Filler Powder
(f) External fuse contacts, etc., are essential parts.

hrc fuse diagram

The outer structure of this fuse is made of ceramic, and its cylindrical part is filled with filler powder. This Powder is usually made of quarts of sand. This fuse unit has a brass cap at both ends with which the fuse element of the bi-metallic strip is attached to carry the current.

In the event of a fault in a circuit, fault current flows through the fuse, the fuse element melts before the first peak value of current is attained, and the heat generated causes the molten fuse metal to evaporate.

This vapor of the silver fuse element chemically reacts with filler powder to form a highly resistant metal which is very helpful in arc quenching. Figure 1 shows a fuse of the HRC cartridge type.

Advantages of HRC Cartridge Fuse

HRC cartridge fuse has the following advantages-

(a) The action of this type of fuse is slow and satisfactory at high current.
(b) There is no possibility of oxidation in it.
(c) It can work at high speed.
(d) Its cost is also less.
(e) The curve of their time-current nature is inverse.
(f) It is easy to identify them.

Disadvantages of HRC Fuse

Disadvantages– HRC fuse has the following disadvantages.
(a) It is necessary to replace them after their operation.
(b) During their operation, high temperatures are generated, damaging nearby switches if they are not adequately protected.

2. HRC Cartridge Fuse with Tripping – The IRC fuse with tripping is shown in the figure. In this, the body of the fuse is made of ceramic, and it has a metal cap on either side. Silver fuse elements are attached to these caps, and for this, a plunger is attached at one end, which acts as a tripping device for the respective circuit breaker.

This plunger is either directly connected to the circuit breaker or activates the circuit breaker by closing the relay circuit and is itself operated by a chemical charge. To conduct the chemical charges, a weak shunt wire is attached to the plunger, which is connected to the tungsten shunt wire through the chemical charges.

The other end of the tungsten wire is attached to the cap on the bottom of the fuse. In the event of a fault in the circuit, the silver fuse melts first, and then current flows through the shunt wire, fuses the fusible link attached to the tungsten wire, and reduces the chemical charge. This reduced charge pushes the plunger outwards, which operates the circuit breaker.

Uses of HRC Fuse

When the fuse blows in a 3-phase circuit, it starts the breaker in the circuit to reduce the loss due to running in the 2-phase.

3. GEC HRC Fuse- Figure 3 below shows a GEC HRC fuse. In this type of fuse, the body is made of ceramic in a cylinder shape, and it has a metallic cap at both ends. The fuse element used in this is made of pure silver, which is surrounded by silica. In this type of fuse, two broad melting components are also mounted in parallel, increasing the circuit’s breaking capacity.

This type of fuse also has an indicator in which a gauge resistance wire is connected in parallel with the melting element and is covered in packet form on the side of the fuse, as shown in Figure 3.

Uses of HRC Fuse

Following are the uses of HRC fuse

  1. Low potential HRC fuse is used for overload and short circuit conditions in the low potential distribution systems.
  2.  HRC fuse is used for break-up protection of a circuit breaker whose short-circuiting capacity exceeds its rated capacity MVA.

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